Project management principles and techniques help to complete projects on time, within budget and to project specifications. At the same time, they help achieve the other goals of the organisation, such as productivity, quality, and cost-effectiveness. The objective of project management is to ensure completion of projects and to meet agreed goals of time, cost and scope (Richman, 2011). ISO 21500 (2013) defines project management as “the application of methods,ntools, techniques and competences to a project. Project management includes the integration of the different stages of the project life cycle. Project management is accomplished through processes”. The project management aspect is also defined by PRINCE2 (2009) as “a temporary organisation that is needed tonproduce a unique and predefined outcome or result in a pre-specified time using predetermined resources”. Moreover, PMI, Project Management Institute (2013) defines project management “is therefore the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet the project requirements’’. Furthermore, IPMA, the International Project Management Association (2006), defines a project as “a time and costnconstrained operation to realize a set of defined deliverables up to quality standards and requirements”.
In other words, project management is the planning, execution and monitoring of project activities to meet project objectives, achieved by effectively controlling and balancing the constraints of scope, schedule and budget (Peng et al., 2007). The main purpose is to produce quality deliverables that meet or exceed the expectations of the project stakeholders. The temporary nature of projects contrasts with processes, or operations, which are permanent or semi-permanent, and considered as on-going functional work to create the effective product or service.