Project Management Association of Iraq

Project Management Association of Iraq

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What is a Project?

Sadeq Alturfi

The origin of the word “project” (from the Latin “pro”, meaning forward, and “jacere”, meaning throw) is “late Middle English (in the sense ‘preliminary design, tabulated statement’) and from the Latin ‘projectum’, meaning something prominent” (Walding et al., 2004). “A project is an individual or collaborative enterprise that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim” (Oxford Dictionary, 1933).

Kozak-Holland (2011) goes on to explain that the word “project” originally meant something that comes before anything else is done. When the word was initially stated, it indicated to the plan to do something, not to the act of actually carrying out the plan. Something performed in accordance with a project was called an object. This meaning changed use in the 1950s, when several techniques and methods for project management were introduced; in this era, the word changed meaning slightly to include both projects and objects.

             Many authors give guidelines for how to manage projects, yet they often lack precision with regard to what they consider a project (Munk-Madsen, 2005). They sometimes proffer the guideline as applying to a larger class of phenomena than just projects, and at other times, apply the term to a subclass of projects such as engineering projects (AIPM, 2008; APM, 2012; PMI, 2013).

There are several definitions of projects in academic literature. Gittinger (1972) defines projects as a whole complex of activities involved in using resources to gain benefits. In 1982, he added that projects form a clear and distinct portion of a larger or less precisely identified program. Tuman (1983) states: “a project is an organization of people dedicated to a specific purpose or objective. Projects generally involve large, expensive, unique, or high risk undertakings which have to be completed by a specific date, for a specific amount of money, with some expected level of performance. At a minimum, all projects need to have well defined objectives and sufficient resources to carry out all the required tasks” (p. 498).

 Declerck et al. (1983, 1997) offer a generic definition of a project as “a whole (set) of actions limited in time and space, inserted in, and in interaction with a politico-socio-economic environment, aimed at and tended towards a goal progressively redefined by the dialectic between the thought (the project plan) and the reality”.

 Turner (1999) noted that “a project is an endeavour in which human, financial and material resources are organized in a novel way to undertake a unique scope of work, of given specification, within constraints of cost and time, so as to achieve beneficial change defined by quantitative and qualitative objectives” (Turner, 1999, p.8). A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMI, 2013, p.2) defines it as: “a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result”. It can therefore be said that a project is temporary, with a defined scope and resources. A project is unique in that it is not a routine operation, but a specific set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal “.

In addition to the above statements, a project is typically an activity for which money will be spent in expectation of returns, and which logically seems to lend itself to planning, financing, and execution as a unit. It is a certain activity, with a starting point and a certain ending point, intended to achieve specific objectives (Prabhakar, 2008). Usually, it is a unique action noticeably different from previous, similar investments, and it is likely to be various from succeeding ones, not a routine segment of on-going processes (Gittinger, 1982). It works with a well-defined sequence of production and investment activities, and a specific group of advantages, that can be identified, quantified, and usually determine value for money. Often, a project will have a partially or wholly independent administrative structure and set of accounts that is funded through a specially defined financial package (Merrett, 2001).

The project statement should not be a gathering of technical information, but should define what is to be done, why it is to be done, and what business value it will provide to the state organisation when the project is completed (Fuchs, 2006). Components of the project statement are shown in the following figure.



Figure 2.1 Key questions to be answered during the concept phase


As maintained by Nilsson and Söderholm (2005), planning is an intrinsic feature of projects. Plans are meant to build and guide the project team members as they work on realising the project goals that have been set out for them. From all these definitions, one can see that there are some specific attributes that define a project and separate it from most ordinary work:

·         A project has a beginning and an end (Prabhakar, 2008; PMI, 2013).

·         A project has limited resources (Turner, 1999; Prabhakar, 2008; Gasik, 2011).

·         A project follows a planned, organised method to meet its objectives with specific goals of quality and performance (Prabhakar, 2008; PMI, 2013).

·         Every project is unique (Turner, 1999).

A project manager is responsible for its outcomes (Nilsson and Söderholm, 2005; PMI, 2013).

 Sadeq Alturfi , 2017, Best Practice Project management for the Sustainable Regeneration of Holy Karbala Province in Iraq, PhD

News Archive

Meeting of the General Assembly of pmai.

Meeting of the General Assembly of the  Project Management Association of Iraqi (pmai)According to the law of scientific associations and instructions, it was decided to hold the second meeting.

Project Manager (Level I) Training Course for PMBOK® Sixth Edition.

Project Manager Preparation Course (Level 1)One of the requirements of the Iraqi Certificate Project Manager Professional (PMPi)Course number: PM004Duration of the course:22 days / Sunday and Tuesday.

Starting Project Management Course.

The first level project management course was held on Tuesday, 2019/3/5, with the participation of 24 trainees from various government departments and the private sector, which includes 34 training.

Project Manager (Level I) Training Course for PMBOK® Sixth Edition.

Course Specifications Course Number:PM0003 Course Length:22 days44 hours Lecturer: Dr. Sadeq Alturfi  PhD, MPM, CDPM, CPC, FAAPM  Venue:pmai , Kerbala Holy Province.

Structure of paper for publication Course.


Creating action plan Course.

Creating action plan CourseLecturer : Assist prof. Dr Shakir al-Busaltan Venue: pmai , Karbala Holy Province - old stadium intersection- Karbala Complex.Date: From Saturday 2/2 to.

Mini-Project Management Course.

On Friday and Saturday, 28-29/12/2018, the mini project management course was held at the headquarters of the Iraqi Society for Project Management with 12 training units. The course was attended by 28.

PMP Certification Training Exam Prep Course.

Project Management Association of Iraq (pmai)nprovides extensive and comprehensive PMP Exam Prep Training that will enablenyou to clear PMP examination with ease, and thereby, improve.

PMAI - the chartered body for the project profession in Iraq.

The Project Management Association of Iraq (PMAI) is the chartered body for the project profession. We have many individual members and organisations participating in our Corporate Partnership.

International Project Management Association (IPMA).

Dr. Al-Turfi, SadeqThe IPMA is the oldest project management institution in the world, established in 1965 by the Federation of Professional National Associations (Xue et al., 2014). The IPMA.

The Association of Project Management (APM, UK).

*Dr. Sadeq AlturfiAPM was founded 1972 in the UK, and was launched in 1988 by its chairman on BBC TV, who had launched a new television series on business matters, project management and APM (APM,.

Aims of the Association .


Approval of the Elections of Association Board 2018.


Project management.

Sadeq AlturfiProject management principles and techniques help to complete projects on time, within budget and to project specifications. At the same time, they help achieve the other goals of the.

What is a Project?.

Sadeq AlturfiThe origin of the word “project” (from the Latin “pro”, meaning forward, and “jacere”, meaning throw) is “late Middle English (in the sense ‘preliminary design, tabulated.

PMP Exam Preparation course.

The PMP Exam Preparation course follows the framework of the Project Management Body of Knowledge PMBOK 6th Edition. Each topic is introduced and discussed, with emphasis on the Inputs-Processes-Tools.

Elections of Association Board 2018.